Welcome to Cosmology and Thermodynamics

Bernard Bligh
Wadham College, Oxford University,
Upper 2nd MA degree in Chemistry,
B.Sc. Research degree in Low Temperature Physics, designed and constructed a Helium Liquefier,

1958 CERN, Geneva,  installed a hydrogen liquefier,

1958 to 1960,  British Oxygen Research Company,  designed and constructed a Hydrogen Liquefier,

1960 to 1968,  ICI, development research into a wide variety of processes, applying the techniques of radio-active isotopes, Thermodynamics, Physical Chemistry and much else.

1969 to 1987,  Air Products Ltd, development research, applying Thermodynamics to processes such as air separation plants, gas liquefiers, gas purification, etc.  Won the British Cryogenics Council Prize jointly with R.J. Allam in 1973.

1989  Lectured in Physical Chemistry at Anglia College, Cambridge.

1991 to 1996  Lectured in Physical Chemistry, and also demonstrated Practical Chemistry at Kingston University, Surrey.

Papers published, Croft, A.J. and Bligh, B.R. The Clarendon Laboratory Helium Liquefier, Cryogenics, Vol. 1, pp 1-4, 1961.
Papers presented, 
(1) “The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation does NOT prove that the Hot Big Bang Theory is correct”, paper presented at Crisis in Cosmology Conference-2, Sept. 2008, Port St. Angeles, USA.
(2) “Does Electromagnetic Radiation Generate Entropy?  The Carnot Cycle Revisited”,  paper presented at the conference, Frontiers in Fundamental Physics-10, Nov. 2009, Perth, Australia.
(3) “Application of Thermodynamics to Cosmology  in “Gravitation Electromagnetism and Cosmology” p. 143-164, originally presented at an international conference on the Relativistic Universe in September 1999 at Cesena, Italy.

(4)   “The Sun is Electrically Positively Charged;  The Conundrum of the ‘Missing Mass’ is Explained”,  Prespacetime Journal, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1200 – 1214, (Oct. 2010). 

(5)  “Has Cosmology taken a Wrong Turn in its Historical Development?”  Proceedings of the National Philosophy Alliance, 1, 2011.

(6)  "Titan Atmosphere;  Vapour/Liquid/Solid Diagram for the System, Nitrogen + Methane"  To be published in the Journal of Physical Science and Application. 

(7)  Electric Charge as the Cause of the Nearly Perfect Spherical Shape of the Sun”  Prespacetime Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 13, Dec. 2018 patents on improvements in gas separation, gas purification, distillation, generation of electricity by fuels cells and other inventions.