Welcome to Cosmology and Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Applied to Cosmology

 The Hot Big Bang Theory postulates that the early Universe was at a very high temperature and that the expansion of the Universe automatically brought about cooling.
 
The property of temperature and the action of expansion of fluids are in the realm of Thermodynamics which is an experimental science.
 So what does Thermodynamics have to say about the free expansion of gases ? The answer is that the free expansion of an ideal gas is a constant temperature process.
 
The belief by cosmologists that an expanding Universe would automatically cool down is mistaken.
 
It appears that most cosmologists are mathematicians or theoretical physicists who have no practical experience of Thermodynamics.
 
As I explain in my book, in my long career, I have met many scientists and engineers who are very competent in their own fields but they do not have a feel for Thermodynamics.
 
A rigorous thermodynamic study of the Hot Big Bang Theory reveals many other fallacies.
 
For example the expositions by Weinberg and by Alpher and Herman and others show a straight line relationship between fall in temperature and the expanding "scale factor". But the supposed cooling of primeval ionized hydrogen would have gone through association to atoms and then further association to hydrogen molecules.
 
These changes bring about severe kinks in these curves when these parameters are drawn out graphically; the same goes for graphs of temperature versus internal energy.
 
A thorough analysis of the Thermodynamics shows conclusively that the Hot Big Bang Theory violates both the First and the Second Laws of Thermodynamics. This hypothesis is comprehensively set out and argued with associated diagrams and detailed calculations in my book. "The Big Bang Exploded! Cosmology Corrected, A Commentary with Thermodynamics" ISBN 0-9538776-0-4.
 
The master Temperature-Entropy Diagram of hydrogen described in the sections on Learning Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic Calculations is
53 cm x 54 cm and is available for purchase at £3.00 + postage.
 
Both items are available directly from
B.R. Bligh, 4, St Jame's Ave, Hampton Hill, Middlesex, TW12 1HH, United Kingdom; price £14.00 plus postage. Payment via cheque, international money order,  payable to B.R. Bligh. Payment may also be made via my Paypal account (brbligh314@talktalk.net).